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Funding agencies and private institutions are more and more frequently asking that the research they fund be made Open Access or Public Access.  Track changes in policy related to federal government agencies on the Office of Science and Technology Policy site.

Many journals have policies requiring open access to the data that underlies a publication, for the purposes of replication and further research. Lists of such policies are available at these websites:

The list below summarizes major US Research funder open access requirements for publications and data, and links to information on related journal requirements.

  • Agency/Entity:
    White House Office of Science and Technology Policy Directive / Office of Science and Technology Policy
  • Publication policy:
    All federal agencies over $100M annually in R&D required to make peer-reviewed manuscripts available within 12 months. Began 2013. View the directive.
  • Data policy:
    All federal agencies over $100M annually in R&D required to make data stored and publicly accessible to search, retrieve, and analyze. Scope: data necessary to validate research findings, including data sets used to support scholarly publications. (Lab notebooks not included)
  • Agency/Entity:
    DoD / US Department of Defense
  • Publication policy:
    Public Access Plan. Took effect FY16. Authors required to upload their final accepted peer-reviewed journal manuscripts (or the final published article, if the author has sufficient rights) to the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) at time of acceptance. Articles available no later than 12 months following publication.
  • Data policy:
    Public Access Plan. Compliance began FY17. Data Management Plans (DMPs) will be required, focusing on data "necessary to validate research findings." Metadata for each data set, including subject, characteristics, and location, will be shared via DTIC's DoD data set catalog.
  • Agency/Entity:
    DOE / US Department of Energy
  • Publication policy:
    Public Access Plan. October 1, 2014. Accepted manuscripts must be submitted to an open access repository, such as DSpace@MIT, or DOE’s new PAGES service. Information about publications must also be submitted to DOE.
  • Data policy:
    Public Access Plan. October 1, 2014 for Office of Science requirements. Other DOE offices by end of 2015. Proposals must include a Data Management Plan outlining how the data generated in research will be shared and preserved.
  • Agency/Entity:
    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • Publication policy:
    Open Access Policy. January 1, 2015. Publications must be openly accessible in a repository under a Creative Commons Attribution license at time of publication. (An embargo period of up to 12 months after publication is allowed during a transition period, until January 1, 2017.)
  • Data policy:
    Open Access Policy. January 1, 2015. Data underlying the published research results must be immediately accessible and open. (An embargo period of up to 12 months after publication is allowed during a transition period, until January 1, 2017.)
  • Agency/Entity:
    HHMI / Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  • Publication policy:
    2007. Requires publication in journals that allow articles to be freely accessible in a public repository within 12 months. Applies to HHMI investigators, not to all grantees.
  • Data policy:
    Policy includes supplementary materials.
  • Agency/Entity:
    NASA / National Aeronautics and Space Administration
  • Publication policy:
    Public Access Plan. 2015. Peer-reviewed accepted journal manuscripts (or the final published version of record, by publisher agreement) must be available no later than 12 months following publication. Access will be through a NASA portal to the PubMed Central (PMC) platform.
  • Data policy:
    Grants, contracts, directed research projects and other agreements require Data Management Plans. January 1, 2015. Focus is on “research data that underlie the results and findings in peer-reviewed publications.” Data must be accessible at the time of publication or “within a reasonable time period.” Data can be made available via a journal publisher, through NASA archives, or another data repository.
  • Agency/Entity:
    NCAR / National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Publication policy:
    Open Access Policy 2009. All peer reviewed research (final manuscript) publicly available through NCAR repository, OpenSky.
  • Data policy:
    n/a
  • Agency/Entity:
    NIH / National Institutes of Health
  • Publication policy:
    Public Access Plan. Originally 2008; revised plan 2015. Final peer-reviewed manuscript shared within 12 months via PubMedCentral.
  • Data policy:
    Public Access Plan. Effective with the end of 2015, Grants must include data management plan. Scope: at a minimum, applies to data underlying any publication.
    Genomic Data Sharing Policy. 8/2014. Grants must include data sharing plan; data must be shared. For Genomic data: human data must be shared through NIH designated data repository; nonhuman data via any widely used data repository.
  • Agency/Entity:
    NOAA / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • Publication policy:
    Public Access Plan. Takes effect Jan-Mar 2016. Final peer reviewed manuscripts to be submitted to NOAA repository for sharing within 12 months.
  • Data policy:
    Public Access Plan. Original 2011, updated 2015. Scope: all environmental data collected under research; data sharing is typically required within 2 years.
  • Agency/Entity:
    NSF / National Science Foundation
  • Publication policy:
    Public Access Plan. 2015, takes effect January 2016. Authors must submit final peer-reviewed accepted manuscripts for journal articles and juried conference papers (or the final published version of record) to the DOE PAGES repository system to be openly available no later than 12 months following publication. Authors must also submit 8 metadata fields describing their articles.
  • Data policy:
    New 2015 Plan continues to require Data Management Plans [Data Management Plan (DMP)] .2011.DMP must address how the project will comply with the agency’s (pre-existing) Data Sharing Policy covering primary data, samples, physical collections and other supporting materials.
  • Agency/Entity:
    USDA / United States Department of Agriculture
  • Publication policy:
    Public Access Plan. Effective Jan 1, 2016. Final peer reviewed journal manuscripts must be submitted to the USDA archive "PubAg" to be shared within 12m.
  • Data policy:
    Public Access Plan. All grants must include a data management plan. Scope: All data, at minimum data underlying the conclusions of peer-reviewed scientific research publications.

For help with open data requirements, visit our Data Management site.

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